J Rheum Dis 2017; 24(3): 131-137  
Differential Diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Young Dae Kim1, Alan V Job2, Woojin Cho2,3
1Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, New York, USA
Correspondence to: Young Dae Kim, Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, 170 Juhwa-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang 10380, Korea.
E-mail:kmsc29@hanmail.net
Received: February 26, 2017; Revised: April 2, 2017; Accepted: April 14, 2017; Published online: June 30, 2017.
© Korean College of Rheumatology. All rights reserved.

This is a open Access article, which permits unrestricted non-commerical use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a broad spectrum of disease defined by the presence of arthritis of unknown etiology, lasting more than six weeks duration, and occurring in children less than 16 years of age. JIA encompasses several disease categories, each with distinct clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, genetic backgrounds, and pathogenesis. JIA is classified into seven subtypes by the International League of Associations for Rheumatology: systemic, oligoarticular, polyarticular with and without rheumatoid factor, enthesitis-related arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and undifferentiated arthritis. Diagnosis of the precise subtype is an important requirement for management and research. JIA is a common chronic rheumatic disease in children and is an important cause of acute and chronic disability. Arthritis or arthritis-like symptoms may be present in many other conditions. Therefore, it is important to consider differential diagnoses for JIA that include infections, other connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. Leukemia and septic arthritis are the most important diseases that can be mistaken for JIA. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the subtypes and differential diagnoses of JIA.
Keywords: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Subtype, Differential diagnosis, Children


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