J Rheum Dis 2019; 26(4): 235-247  
Systemic Sclerosis and Microbiota: Overview of Current Research Trends and Future Perspective
Suhee Kim, Sung Hak Chun, Hee Jin Park, Sang-Il Lee
Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, Korea
Correspondence to: Sang-Il Lee http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8283-7001
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, 79 Gangnam-ro, Jinju 52727, Korea. E-mail : goldgu@gnu.ac.kr
Received: August 16, 2019; Revised: August 28, 2019; Accepted: August 29, 2019; Published online: October 1, 2019.
© Korean College of Rheumatology. All rights reserved.

This is a open Access article, which permits unrestricted non-commerical use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
The commensal microbiota contributes to the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the human body. Autoimmunity can be aggravated or alleviated by the microbiota, which affects both innate and adaptive immune cells. Many studies have demonstrated the role of gut dysbiosis, the alteration of the gut microbiome, in the development and progression of numerous autoimmune diseases. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue and is characterized by skin and lung fibrosis, as well as injuries in small arteries. Recent studies have shown variable degrees of dysbiosis in SSc patients and the effect of probiotics on these patients, providing evidence for the potential link between microbiota and SSc. However, further research is needed to elucidate the key microorganisms and the mechanisms through which they affect the pathoimmunological process of SSc. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the association between microbiota and SSc, and discusses the changing perspectives and potential therapy strategies based on the microbiota and its products.
Keywords: Microbiota, Systemic sclerosis, Autoimmune disease, Dysbiosis


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