J Rheum Dis 2022; 29(3): 132-139  
Osteoarthritis – Insights From Recent Research
Hyun Ah Kim, M.D., Ph.D.1,2
1Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, 2Institute for Skeletal Aging, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyun Ah Kim, http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9318-7446
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, 22 Gwanpyeong-ro 170beon-gil, Dongan-gu, Anyang 14068, Korea. E-mail: kimha@hallym.ac.kr
Received: December 23, 2021; Revised: March 18, 2022; Accepted: March 22, 2022; Published online: July 1, 2022.
© Korean College of Rheumatology.

This is a open Access article, which permits unrestricted non-commerical use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is a growing public health concern in the aging society. In rapidly aging societies such as in Korea, the increasing prevalence of OA may present serious new health issues. There is no treatment for OA that can either prevent or slow the progression of joint damage. For the development of effective therapeutics, precise understating of its pathogenesis is important. In this review, the current evidence of etiopathogenesis of OA is discussed. First, while epidemiologic study of OA are still dominated by reports from Western countries, findings from Korean epidemiologic studies are highlighted. Then, recent progresses in genetics, especially in the field of genome wide association study and mendelian randomization studies, are reviewed with focus on Asian population. Lastly, sex difference in pain etopathogenesis is reviewed. Studies of OA pathogenesis including epidemiology, genetics, animal model and pain signaling will aid in progress towards treatment of OA.
Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Genetics, Pain


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